【 localectl 】 システムのロケールやキーボードレイアウトを管理する 【 Linuxコマンドまとめ 】

2018年8月9日

「Linuxコマンドまとめ」カテゴリでは、Linuxのコマンドについて、基本的な実行例とオプションを分かりやすくまとめます。

localectl」は、システムのロケールやキーボードレイアウトを管理するコマンドです。

localectlコマンドの基本的な使い方

localectlコマンドの主な書式は、以下の通りです。

# 設定状況の確認
localectl status

# ロケールの設定
sudo localectl set-locale ロケール

# 設定可能なロケールの一覧を出力
localectl list-locales

# キーマップを設定
sudo localectl set-keymap キーマップ

システムロケールの設定例

システムロケールを「日本語(UTF-8)」に設定するには、以下のように実行します。

sudo localectl set-locale LANG=ja_JP.utf8

「アメリカ英語(UTF-8)」に設定するには、以下のように実行します。

sudo localectl set-locale LANG=en_US.utf8

なお、設定可能なロケールは以下のコマンドで確認できます。

localectl list-locales

システムキーマップの設定例

システムキーマップを、日本で一般的に使われている「日本語109キーボード」に設定するには、次の2つのコマンドを実行します。

sudo localectl set-keymap jp106
sudo localectl set-keymap jp-OADG109A

「USキーボード」に設定するには、次のコマンドを実行します。

sudo localectl set-keymap us

バーチャルコンソールで日本語が化ける場合の回避策

Ubuntuのバーチャルコンソールは、標準で日本語表示に対応していません。そのため、システムロケールを日本語にすると、文字化けしてしまいます。

この問題は、バーチャルコンソールからログインした場合のみ「英語ロケール」を使うことで回避できます。
そのためには、「~/.bashrc」に以下の行を追記します。

[[ $TERM == 'linux' ]] && export LC_ALL=en_US.utf8

バーチャルコンソールからログインした場合、シェル変数「TERM」に「linux」が設定されます。
これを利用して、「$TERM」に「linux」が設定されている場合のみ、環境変数「LC_ALL」に「en_US.utf8」を設定しています。

これにより、バーチャルコンソールからログインした場合のみ各コマンドの出力はすべて英語となります。
一方、SSHで接続した場合や、デスクトップ環境がインストールされているなら端末エミュレータを開いた場合はシステムロケールが用いられます。

localectlのヘルプ

localectl [OPTIONS...] COMMAND ...

Query or change system locale and keyboard settings.

  -h --help                Show this help
     --version             Show package version
     --no-pager            Do not pipe output into a pager
     --no-ask-password     Do not prompt for password
  -H --host=[[email protected]]HOST    Operate on remote host
  -M --machine=CONTAINER   Operate on local container
     --no-convert          Don't convert keyboard mappings

Commands:
  status                   Show current locale settings
  set-locale LOCALE...     Set system locale
  list-locales             Show known locales
  set-keymap MAP [MAP]     Set console and X11 keyboard mappings
  list-keymaps             Show known virtual console keyboard mappings
  set-x11-keymap LAYOUT [MODEL [VARIANT [OPTIONS]]]
                           Set X11 and console keyboard mappings
  list-x11-keymap-models   Show known X11 keyboard mapping models
  list-x11-keymap-layouts  Show known X11 keyboard mapping layouts
  list-x11-keymap-variants [LAYOUT]
                           Show known X11 keyboard mapping variants
  list-x11-keymap-options  Show known X11 keyboard mapping options

localectlのマニュアル

LOCALECTL(1)                       localectl                      LOCALECTL(1)

NAME
       localectl - Control the system locale and keyboard layout settings

SYNOPSIS
       localectl [OPTIONS...] {COMMAND}

DESCRIPTION
       localectl may be used to query and change the system locale and
       keyboard layout settings. It communicates with systemd-localed(8) to
       modify files such as /etc/locale.conf and /etc/vconsole.conf.

       The system locale controls the language settings of system services and
       of the UI before the user logs in, such as the display manager, as well
       as the default for users after login.

       The keyboard settings control the keyboard layout used on the text
       console and of the graphical UI before the user logs in, such as the
       display manager, as well as the default for users after login.

       Note that the changes performed using this tool might require the
       initramfs to be rebuilt to take effect during early system boot. The
       initramfs is not rebuilt automatically by localectl.

       Note that systemd-firstboot(1) may be used to initialize the system
       locale for mounted (but not booted) system images.

OPTIONS
       The following options are understood:

       --no-ask-password
           Do not query the user for authentication for privileged operations.

       --no-convert
           If set-keymap or set-x11-keymap is invoked and this option is
           passed, then the keymap will not be converted from the console to
           X11, or X11 to console, respectively.

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username
           and hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname may
           optionally be suffixed by a container name, separated by ":", which
           connects directly to a specific container on the specified host.
           This will use SSH to talk to the remote machine manager instance.
           Container names may be enumerated with machinectl -H HOST.

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name to
           connect to.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

       --version
           Print a short version string and exit.

       --no-pager
           Do not pipe output into a pager.

       The following commands are understood:

       status
           Show current settings of the system locale and keyboard mapping.

       set-locale LOCALE...
           Set the system locale. This takes one or more assignments such as
           "LANG=de_DE.utf8", "LC_MESSAGES=en_GB.utf8", and so on. See
           locale(7) for details on the available settings and their meanings.
           Use list-locales for a list of available locales (see below).

       list-locales
           List available locales useful for configuration with set-locale.

       set-keymap MAP [TOGGLEMAP]
           Set the system keyboard mapping for the console and X11. This takes
           a mapping name (such as "de" or "us"), and possibly a second one to
           define a toggle keyboard mapping. Unless --no-convert is passed,
           the selected setting is also applied as the default system keyboard
           mapping of X11, after converting it to the closest matching X11
           keyboard mapping. Use list-keymaps for a list of available keyboard
           mappings (see below).

       list-keymaps
           List available keyboard mappings for the console, useful for
           configuration with set-keymap.

       set-x11-keymap LAYOUT [MODEL [VARIANT [OPTIONS]]]
           Set the system default keyboard mapping for X11 and the virtual
           console. This takes a keyboard mapping name (such as "de" or "us"),
           and possibly a model, variant, and options, see kbd(4) for details.
           Unless --no-convert is passed, the selected setting is also applied
           as the system console keyboard mapping, after converting it to the
           closest matching console keyboard mapping.

       list-x11-keymap-models, list-x11-keymap-layouts,
       list-x11-keymap-variants [LAYOUT], list-x11-keymap-options
           List available X11 keymap models, layouts, variants and options,
           useful for configuration with set-keymap. The command
           list-x11-keymap-variants optionally takes a layout parameter to
           limit the output to the variants suitable for the specific layout.

EXIT STATUS
       On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.

ENVIRONMENT
       $SYSTEMD_PAGER
           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. If
           neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER nor $PAGER are set, a set of well-known
           pager implementations are tried in turn, including less(1) and
           more(1), until one is found. If no pager implementation is
           discovered no pager is invoked. Setting this environment variable
           to an empty string or the value "cat" is equivalent to passing
           --no-pager.

       $SYSTEMD_LESS
           Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK").

       $SYSTEMD_LESSCHARSET
           Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if the
           invoking terminal is determined to be UTF-8 compatible).

SEE ALSO
       systemd(1), locale(7), locale.conf(5), vconsole.conf(5), loadkeys(1),
       kbd(4), The XKB Configuration Guide[1], systemctl(1), systemd-
       localed.service(8), systemd-firstboot(1), mkinitrd(8)

NOTES
        1. The XKB Configuration Guide
           http://www.x.org/releases/current/doc/xorg-docs/input/XKB-Config.html

systemd 237                                                       LOCALECTL(1)